Command Line Interface (CLI): Get Started¶
This tutorial will introduce you to how to use CLI to manage files and directories.
We will cover the basic commands for navigating your file system, creating, editing, copying, renaming, moving, and deleting files and directories using the CLI.
By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to:
- Understand the importance of using the CLI
- Navigate your file system using the CLI: create, edit, copy, rename, move, and delete files and directories
⚒️ Tutorial: CLI - Get started¶
1. Show files and directories¶
Let's start with
pwd command. It stands for “print working directory”
…and then list the directory contents with
The directory may have some hidden files. They are typically used to store configuration settings, preferences, etc. And hidden files aren’t intended to be directly accessed or modified by the user on a regular basis.
With the command
ls -a, you can list all files in a directory, including hidden files.
To list files in the long format, use the
ls command with the
-l argument. This command's output will include information about permissions, ownership, file size, date and time of last modification, and the file or directory name.
To combine options, use
To get help on
ls command, let's use the command
man ls. Same works for other CLI commands.
If you need any clarification on the functionalities and options available for the
ls command, use the command
man ls. It stands for manual page. Same works for other CLI commands.
To come back to the CLI, press the
q button on the keyboard.
2. Create directories and files¶
To make a new directory in the current working directory, you should use the
mkdir command followed by the directory name. For example, let’s create
Once the directory is created, you can move into it using the
cd command. It stands for “change directory”
Sometimes you might need to create a new empty file.
Let’s create a file named
file.txt in the current directory with
touch file.txt command.
3. Edit files with the
For this learning part, you need to use a text editor. You can use Vi or Vim text editors, which are built-in CLI.
Also, you may use another default editor on your system (like
nano). In this case, skip this section.
Create a file
To edit a file in vi /vim editor:
ito switch to insert mode and add the text:
This is the first line
In case you want to close the file without saving it:
- Type a string
:q(stands for ‘quit’) and press
Enter, you will get an expected error:
E37: No write since last change (add ! to override)
!mark, type a string
Enter, to close the file without saving changes
If you want to save changes made in vi / vim editor:
- Open the file with
vi file.txtagain and add the text:
This is the first line
- Type a string
Finally, to show the content of a file in CLI use the
cat command with the file name, such as
file.txt. This command stands for "concatenate." It means that
cat command can read and display the contents of one or multiple files to the terminal.
4. Copy, move, and delete files¶
These code lines demonstrate how to copy, move, and delete files and directories using the command-line interface. Here are the steps:
- Navigate to the
cp file.txt file2.txt.
mv file2.txt ..
file2.txtusing the command
rmand the file’s name such as
demo-clidirectory and all its contents using
rm -rf demo-cli.
5. Сheat sheet with commands¶
|mkdir||Creates a new folder|
|rm||Removes a file or directory|
|cd||Changes to another location in your filesystem|
|ls||Lists the files in the current directory|
|pwd||Prints working directory|
|cat||Prints in the current screen the content of a file|
|mv||Moves or rename files|
Vi/Vim editor commands
|:i||Press i to switch to insert mode|
|:w||After making changes to a file, press [Esc] to shift to the command mode and press :w and hit [Enter] to save a file.|
|:q||To exit Vi/Vim, use the :q command and hit [Enter]|
|:wq / :x||To save a file and exit Vi/Vim simultaneously, use the :wq command and hit [Enter] or :x command|
|:q!||To force this action, use ESC and :q!|
Congratulations on completing this tutorial! 🥳 By now, you should have a solid understanding of the importance of using the CLI in machine learning development and should be able to navigate your file system using CLI commands. You have also learned how to create, edit, and delete files and directories using the CLI.
Keep practicing and honing your skills with the CLI, and don't hesitate to explore new commands and techniques. With time and practice, you will become a CLI expert! 🙌🏻
🎓 Additional Resources¶
- Machine Learning REPA Library
- Unix Tutorial for Beginners
- Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous
- Introduction to the Unix Shell
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